EU MOBILITY | SOCIAL SECURITY
As a EEA national entering the labour market in Spain for the first time you have to register with the social security service and join the insurance scheme. Registration with the social security service is compulsory. It is done once only, when the person begins to work for the first time, and is valid for his or her entire working life.
As a general rule a person must be employed and paying contributions in order to be entitled to benefits. That is why if your status in Spain is self-sufficient, you will be asked to have a private Health Insurance.
However, the social security system in Spain has two levels or types of protection: the contributory system and the non-contributory system. Contributory system includes Health Care, Sickness cash benefits, Maternity and paternity benefits, Contributory retirement pensions and Unemployment assistance, among others.
Non-contributory benefits include: Medical assistance, retirement and disability allowances, family allowances and non-contributory maternity allowance among others.
Anyone who disagrees with the decision of a social security organisation can submit a complaint to that organisation, within thirty days from the time of notification of the decision. If the organisation rejects the complaint, an appeal to the local social security tribunal (Juzgado de lo social) is available. As a further step, a claim can be lodged at the Higher Court of Justice of the Autonomous Community to which the social security tribunal belongs.
If you are a posted worker, because you are sent by your employer to work in another country, you will remain insured under the legislation of your country of origin if you fulfill the conditions which apply to posted workers.
This means that you can work there up to a maximum of 24 months on behalf of your employer who is based in the sending country. Before leaving, you should make sure you get an ‘A1’ document which certifies that you are covered by the legislation of the country from which you are posted.
This solution aims at avoiding frequent changes in your social security situation in the case of short periods of work abroad. The same provisions apply to self-employed persons who temporarily perform a similar activity in another country.
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